The design of mid-air, accessory-free, gesture-based control of multiple targets (devices) in the physical space presents several challenges, including: (a) user control entails both addressing the device and providing input to it (either sequentially or simultaneously); (b) despite a potentially large number of devices, the gesture vocabulary must be kept small to allow for memorability; (c) the gesture set must include discrete gestures to avoid the phenomenon of Midas’ touch (accidental operations or false positive errors). In previous work, we have addressed those challenges by introducing two interaction models: (a) the two-stage approach in which the user applies sequentially separate gestures for (1) Address and then (2) Command a device (A-t-C model), and (b) one-stage approach in which the user applies a two-handed gesture that simultaneously Addresses and Commands a device (A & C model). In this paper, we first describe the two interaction models in detail. Then we present their comparative evaluation in terms of usability. We have found that both interaction models present very high task success ratio, and very low false-positive errors ratio and memorability error ratio. Furthermore, the A&C model is significantly more usable that A-t-C in terms of task-time and false-negative errors (i.e. errors of no system response).
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